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Other CMA accepted Breed's Standards

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AKBASH DOG
Official U.K.C. Breed Standard
Revised April 1, 1998


History

The Akbash Dog is a white livestock guardian breed native to the plains and mountains of western Turkey. While the origins of the breed are obscure, it is known to be an ancient pure breed. The Akbash Dog is the Turkish counterpart of the other white guardian breeds found around the northern Mediterranean Basin. However, only the Akbash Dog possesses its unique combination of Mastiff and gazehound characteristics.

In Turkey, Akbash Dogs are owned and bred by villagers and shepherds to protect their sheep from wolves and other predators. Recognition of these great white guardians as a distinct breed resulted from fieldwork done by Americans David and Judy Nelson who studied the dogs in Turkey beginning in the 1970s. The Nelsons have imported over 40 Akbash Dogs to the United States. These dogs became the foundation stock for the breed in the United States and Canada. In 1980, the U.S. Department of Agriculture introduced Akbash Dogs to its Predator Control Program where the dogs performed successfully.

The United Kennel Club recognized the Akbash Dog on January 1, 1998.

General Appearance

The white Akbash Dog is a long-legged, lean, muscular dog of imposing size and strength, great courage, and stamina, with an alert, regal bearing. The Akbash Dog is slightly longer in proportion than tall, has a wedge-shaped head with pendant ears, and a long tail, usually carried in a curl over the back when the dog is moving or excited. The Akbash Dog represents a very rare and special mixture of Mastiff and gazehound characteristics that are important to maintain. The gazehound influence is apparent in the breed's long legs, deep chest, arched loin, shallow lower jaw, tucked up flank, speed, and agility, while the Mastiff's contributions can be seen in the breed's height, weight, broader head, and overall impression of power. When judging this breed, preference should be given to Akbash Dogs who exhibit a perfect balance between the two types.

Gender differences can be striking in this breed. Typically the dog is proportionately taller and heavier than the female. The bitch appears feminine in comparison to the dog. There is no difference in the ability of males or females to perform as guardians.

The breed is presented in a completely natural condition and should be evaluated equally for correct conformation, temperament, gait, and structural soundness. Honorable scars or other evidences of injury resulting from working in the field are not to be penalized.

Characteristics

The essential characteristics of the Akbash Dog are those that enable it to perform successfully as a livestock guardian. Akbash Dogs have the size, strength, and courage to challenge large predators and the speed and agility to chase fleet predators. Their temperament is calm, quiet, and steady. They are independent and capable of correctly responding to changing circumstances without human direction.

The Akbash Dog is also highly suitable as a home companion or estate guardian. The Akbash Dog is loyal, gentle, and quietly affectionate with its own family, including children and family pets, but remains aloof and suspicious toward strangers. It is also by nature watchful of other dogs and may, on its own territory, react aggressively to intruding dogs. Although independent in nature, the Akbash Dog responds well to basic training. Properly socialized and trained, the Akbash Dog is an ideal family pet and home guardian.

Although its protective, guarding instincts are demonstrated at a young age, the breed matures slowly, both physically and temperamentally, with individuals requiring two to three years to reach their prime. Females tend to mature faster than males.

Head

In both sexes, the wedge-shaped head is proportionate to the size and build of the individual specimen. The male head is proportionally larger than the female head. Viewed from above, the head tapers gradually toward the tip of the nose forming a blunt wedge shape. Viewed from the side, the length of muzzle is approximately one-half the length of the head, measured from occiput to nose. The head is free of wrinkles.

SKULL -- The skull is large, slightly domed, and broad between the ears. The skull is longer than broad and tapers gradually toward the muzzle. The stop is slightly to moderately defined. The cheeks are flat and smooth.

Faults: Skull too flat; skull too narrow.

MUZZLE -- Viewed from the side, the topline of the muzzle is straight and roughly parallel to the top of the skull. The muzzle is broad where it joins the skull and tapers gradually toward the nose, forming a blunt wedge shape. The jaws are strong but the lower jaw is relatively shallow. Lips are black or dark brown, flews are tight, and whiskers are white.

Faults: Snipey muzzle.

Disqualification: Complete lack of pigmentation on lips.

TEETH -- The Akbash Dog has a complete set of large, evenly spaced, white teeth. A scissors bite is preferred but a level bite is acceptable. Broken teeth resulting from field work are not to be penalized.

Serious faults: Over or undershot bite; more than two teeth missing.

NOSE -- Nose color may be either solid dark brown or solid black, with both colors being equally acceptable. Dogs displaying a slight seasonal fading of nose pigment should not be penalized. The skin pigmentation of the muzzle around the nose may be gray, spotted, or absent but preference should be given to the stronger pigmentation. In profile, the nose is on the same line as the top of the muzzle and extends somewhat beyond the lower jaw.

Serious fault: Butterfly nose.

Disqualification: Complete lack of pigmentation on nose.

EYES -- The eyes are medium-sized, almond-shaped, and set well apart. Eye color may range from golden brown to dark brown with darker color preferred. Expression is intelligent, alert, and kindly. Eye rims are tight and solidly colored either black or dark brown. Eyelashes are white.

Serious faults: Very pale yellow eyes; loose eye rims.

Disqualifications: Blue eyes; complete lack of pigmentation on eyerims.

EARS -- The ears are pendant, V-shaped, and slightly rounded at the tips. The ears are set rather high and lie flat to the skull. When alert, the ears are carried slightly higher; when the dog is disturbed, the ears are pulled back. When pulled toward the eye, the ear should extend at least to the outer edge of the eye and no farther than to the inner corner of the eye. In Turkey, the majority of Akbash Dogs have their ears cropped as puppies. Cropped ears on a dog imported from Turkey should not be penalized, but cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog are a disqualification.

Faults: Ears set too high or too low; ears too large or too small.

Disqualification: Cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog.

Neck

The neck is muscular, medium-long to long, arched at the crest, with little or no dewlap. A dog with some dewlap should not be penalized.

Fault: Excessive dewlap.

Forequarters

The shoulders are well muscled as expected in a working dog. The shoulder blade and upper arm are well angulated and nearly equal in length. The forearm is long, straight, and well boned in proportion to the overall build of the dog. The front legs are set moderately well apart with elbows close to sides. The strong pasterns are slightly sloping when viewed from the side. When viewed from the front, legs should be parallel with each other and perpendicular to the ground.

Faults: Bowed front legs; feet that turn in or out.

Body

The chest is deep and moderately wide. The ribs are well sprung from the spine and then flatten to form a deep body extending almost to the elbows. The length of the ribs decreases fairly quickly from the lowest point of the chest toward the loin. The topline inclines very slightly downward from well-developed withers to a strong back with a slight but definite arch over the loin, which blends into a long, well-muscled, sloping croup. The flank is well tucked up giving evidence of the gazehound influence in the breed.

Faults: Barrel chest.

Hindquarters

The hindquarters are powerful. The upper thigh is both deep, from front to back, and long. Although more heavily muscled, the bone and angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. Stifles are well bent; hocks are well let down. The long hind legs contribute to the graceful arch of the loin and the speed and agility of the breed. Viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are parallel to each other; from the side, they should be slightly forward of the perpendicular when the dog is in a natural but alert position.

Faults: Cow hocks; sickle hocks.

Feet

Two types of feet appear in this breed: cat feet and hare feet. Both are acceptable; the cat foot is preferred. Regardless of shape, the feet are large and strong with well-arched toes. The pads are thick, hard, elastic, and may be either light or dark. Nails are gray, brown, or white and should be presented blunt. Dewclaws may be absent, single, or double and may be removed.

Faults: Splayed feet.

Tail

The tail is uncut, thick at the base, and tapering to the tip. The tail is set low at the base of the croup. When the dog is relaxed, the tail is carried low, just reaching to the hock, with the bottom third of the tail frequently forming a hook. When the dog is moving or excited, the tail is usually carried in a curl over the back. The height and degree of curl depends on the degree of excitement and confidence. The tail may be slightly to heavily feathered in proportion to the coat length of the dog.

Faults: Docked or short tail; tail carried between the legs, which would indicate shyness or cowardliness.

Coat

The Akbash Dog has a double coat consisting of longer, coarse, outer guard hairs and dense undercoat made up of soft, fine hair. Thickness of the undercoat varies significantly with the climate and exposure of the dog to weather. The Akbash Dog normally sheds its undercoat annually. There are two equally acceptable coat lengths. No preference is given to either type. In both types of coat, the hair on the muzzle, ears, and paws is shorter than the body coat.

Medium Coat. The body hair is short to medium in length and lies flat giving a sleek, racy appearance to the dog. There is a slight ruff. There may be a slight feathering on the forelegs, thighs, and tail.

Long Coat. The body coat on the long-coated Akbash Dog is distinctly longer than on the medium-coated dog. The hair is often slightly wavy, but is never curled or matted. The long-coated Akbash Dog with full undercoat appears heavier than the medium-coated dog. There is a distinct ruff and profuse feathering on the forelegs, thighs, and tail. During the summer or in warm climates, the long-coated Akbash Dog appears significantly sleeker without the heavily developed undercoat.

Color

The Akbash Dog is always white. Light biscuit or gray shading around the ears or in the undercoat should never be penalized as long as the dog’s overall appearance is white. Gray or silver-blue skin pigmentation, either solid or in spots, is desirable but not required provided the individual dog shows ample black or dark brown pigmentation on the eyerims, nose, and lips.

Disqualifications: Any overall color other than white; defined spots on the outer coat; black whiskers; black eyelashes; albinism.

Height and Weight

For this flock-guarding breed, size, soundness, and the ability to move with speed and agility are equally important. Desirable height at maturity, measured at the withers, ranges from 30 to 34 inches for males and 28 to 32 inches for females. Weight should be in proportion to the height, giving a well-muscled, lean appearance without being too light or too heavy. The average weight for a male Akbash Dog in good condition is 120 pounds; for a female, 90 pounds.

Fault: Obese, soft condition.

Severe fault: Dog or bitch varying more than one inch in height from the parameters above.

Gait

The gait of the Akbash Dog is easy, free, and elastic. The feet travel close to the ground. From the front or rear, the legs do not travel parallel to each other but rather close together at the ground. As speed increases, the legs gradually angle more inward until the pads are almost single tracking. Viewed from the side, the hind legs reach far under, meeting or even passing the imprints of the front legs. Unless the dog is excited, the head is carried rather low at the level of the shoulders. When alert, the Akbash Dog moves with determination and purpose toward the object of interest.

Disqualifications

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness, marked shyness, or cowardliness. Cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog. Complete lack of pigmentation on the nose, eye rims, or lips. Blue eyes. Any overall color other than white. Defined spots on the outer coat. Black whiskers. Black eyelashes. Albinism.

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ALANO ESPAÑOL

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPANISH ALANO BREEDERS (ASOCIACION NACIONAL DE CRIADORES DE ALANO ESPAÑOL) (ANCAE)


GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

A hunting dog, straight shaped, rough y well-proportioned. Brachycephalic form of head, squared in appearance and with a serious expression. Its body structure is graceful; its movements are agile, and almost feline. The bite is very strong and firm. It has a serious and resolute character, and shows distrust toward strangers.

ORIGIN:

The breed originated in the Iberian Peninsula; there are references of its existence dating to the 14th century. Possibly it is descended from the hunting dogs brought by the barbaric tribes after the fall of the Roman Empire.

CHARACTER AND FACULTIES:

The Spanish Alano traditionally has been used in three basic functions:

1) Herding of cattle.
2) Big-game hunting.
3) Guarding and defense.

In all of these functions the Alano depends on its most outstanding characteristics: its forceful bite. The grip of the Spanish Alano is known and praised since ancient times. The dog bites with its whole jaw, extending the grip back to the molars. The grip is very steady and is maintained for a long period.

Its character is very serious and reliable. It is not tolerant with strangers who are watched with suspicion. It shifts to attack with little outward sign of excitation. When biting wild or brave animals it seeks specific spots of these beasts such as the ears or snout.

Its psychological development is slow as it does not achieve maturity until it becomes twoyears old. Before reaching that age the dog may show signs of insecurity, and it isnot advisable to try to force the development of its character. On achieving maturity the dog doesn't fear aything, and reacts with self-assurance when threatened. With its master it acts submissively and with willingness to be trained.

MORPHOLOGY:
Height and Weight.

Males 58-63 cms
Females 55-60 cms
Weight between 35 Kg. and 45 Kg.

Note: There should be some degree of harmony between the weight and size, allowing variations of 2 cm. from the sizes shown provided that the dog is well proportioned.

Head Skull.

Brachicephalic in form, large and bulky, with prominent androunded frontal temples, and emphasized frontal nasal depression. The skull/face ratio is 65/35. The temple muscles are well developed.

Face and Muzzle.

Shorter than the skull, very wide and powerful, and usually comprising about 35% of the total length of the head.

Eyes.

Appreciably separated, slightly ovaled, and with a serious expression. Clear hazel or yellowish in color depending on the color of the cape, producing the characteristic expression of the breed. Noticeable Zygomatic facial arches.

Ears.

With medium insertion and usually cut back from their base; small in size and slightly rounded at the tip. If they are not cut, they are of medium size and carried folded over the face.

Jaws.

Strong and sound teeth, the incisors should be well aligned and the canines short and wide and well separated from each other. The bite is scissor-like with a slight prognathism allowed, of not more than 2 mm.

Nose.

Large, wide and with open orifices.

Skin.

Adhered to the muscles. Slightly hanging lower lip. Some wrinkles appear in the forehead when the dog is attentive. Black pigmenation of the nostrils and eyelids.

Neck.

Very strong and powerful, short and wide, with a slight double-chin that should never be extreme.

Torso Rib Cage.

Arched, not cylindrical, dropping to the level of the elbows. Back and withers strong and solid.

Backbone Outkine.

Straight or slightly ascending.

Brisket.

Medium wide and deep, very muscular.

Shoulders.

Well developed with large powerful shoulder-blades, providing an ample width for the insertion of the front extremities.

Abdominal Region.

Retracted belly without reaching a greyhound-like appearance.

Croup.

Wide and moderately short. Slightly inclined.

Tail.

Medium at birth, thick at the base, it gradually tapers, thinning at the tip. The length reaches the dog's breech. It is carried high, arcing slightly toward the rump without becoming curled.

Extremities Forearms.

Long, straight and quite vertical, viewed from the front or side. Strong-boned and well developed. Long, inclined upper arms. Compact paws with firm fingers in the form of cat paws.

Extremities Hind Legs.

Strong, with well-developed muscles. Quite vertical and correctly angled. Breech is moderately high and solid. Paws with same characteristics as the front paws, do not reveal salient bones.


MOVEMENT: Bttn_up.gif (1788 bytes)

Walking.

When stepping the weight is carried by the forward train giving the appearance of a chained movement, more like that of a feline than a canine. The head is carried low.

Trotting.

Ample and long, with a style similar to walking.

Galloping.

Rapid and elastic with considerable stretching and flexing of the torso. Very fast.


SKIN: Bttn_up.gif (1788 bytes)

Adhered to the body but rather elastic, somewhat looser at the neck and head.

Hair.

Short and dense, rather thick, without undergrowth.

Color.

The following colors are acceptable:

- Tigered and lion-like in all variations.
- Black and tigered.
- Wolf-like.
- White, spotted with the above colors.

The lower legs as well as the chest, neck and muzzle may be white.

DEFECTS: Bttn_up.gif (1788 bytes)

Slight.

- Prognathism over 2 mm.provided that the canines remain interlocked.
- Missing up to two first molars. 2 premolares.
- Heavy appearance.

Serious.

- Excessive prognathism (over 5 mm.).
- Missing more than two first molars.
- Lack of front nasal depression.
- Unsociable character.
- Salient leg bones.

Very serious. Ineptitude. In general, lack of reproduction.

- Long hair.
- Abnormal colors.
- Weak character.
- Mastin-like structure.
- Greyhound-like structure.
- Twisted mouth.
- Castrated dogs, or having a displaced or missing testicle.

And in general all characteristics that deviate from those described in the breed standard.

NOTE:

This breed standard refers to the type of Alano used fundamentally for big-game hunting and herding cattle in the field over long distances. It should be noted that in letters there are frequently instances of the type used traditionally for short-distance chases in bull-rings, slaughter-houses and as property watchdogs: they are generally smaller dogs of heavier build, usually with short muzzles and powerful heads.

This type of dog that the English call BULLDOG (used for recuperation of the English Bulldog), is known here as "perro de presa" or "pug", among other names. We do not discount the possibility that in the future it may be chosen as a separate breed.

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ALAPAHA BLUEBLOOD BULLDOG
Breed standard- A.R.B.A.

OVERALL IMPRESSION: Square, powerfully built yet agile and athletic for size, alert
Should give impression of nobility

HEAD
Large, flat across top, heavily muscled in males, square

MUZZLE:
Medium in length, square jaws heavily muscled, slight protrusion of lower jaw permissable but
not desireable

NOSE
Dark, 50% or less of light pigment acceptable

EARS
Medium in size, half‑perked with forward roll. Trimming not permissible.

EYES
Set well apart with hollow between Any color permissible "glass" or "marble" eye acceptable

NECK
Thick, medium in length

SHOULDERS
Of short length and heavily muscled 23-25" high in males, 20-23" high in females
Should give impression of power

CHEST
Wide and deep

BACK
Straight ‑ not rigid or swayed, length equal to height of shoulders

TAIL
Optimum length should reach hock Final third of tail to have gradual upward curvature
Docking absolutely not permissable

FORELEGS
Straight and extremely thick‑boned Balanced toward toes Feet well knuckled up with thick pad
(Dewclaws not removed)

REAR
With musculature comparably in proportion to forequarters Hips narrower than chest

COAT
Short to medium in length Fairly stiff to the touch Soft undercoat

COLOR
Preferred coloring: Blue/gray to black ‑ or ‑ tan to dark brown

Faults: 50% or more brindle - Any solid coloring - Total black "masking" of face With "Marbling
Trimmed in white

SIZE
Males: 22-25" at withers 90-110 lbs.
Females: 20-23" 65-75 lbs.

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AMERICAN BULLDOG

Official U.K.C. Breed Standard

History

Bulldogs in England were originally working dogs who drove and caught cattle and guarded their masters' property. The breed's strength, courage, and familiarity with livestock led to its popularity in the brutal sport of bull baiting. When this sport was outlawed in England, the original type of Bulldog disappeared from Britain and was replaced with the shorter, stockier, less athletic dog we now know as the English Bulldog.

The original Bulldog, however, was preserved by working class immigrants who brought their working dogs with them to the American South. Small farmers and ranchers used this all-around working dog for many tasks. By the end of World War II, however, the breed was almost extinct. Mr. John D. Johnson, a returning war veteran, decided to resurrect this breed. Along with Alan Scott and several other breeders, Johnson began carefully to breed American Bulldogs, keeping careful records and always with an eye for maintaining the breed's health and working abilities.
Because of the many different types of work this breed can do, several distinct lines evolved, each emphasizing the traits needed to do a specific job. The best known lines are usually referred to as the Johnson and Scott types. The Johnson dogs are more massive, with a larger, broader head and shorter muzzle, and a definite undershot bite. The Scott dogs were somewhat lighter in musculature and bone than the Johnson dogs, with a less Mastiff-like head. Today, however, most American Bulldogs have crosses to two or more of these lines and are not as easily distinguishable.
The modern American Bulldog continues to serve as an all-purpose working dog; a fearless and steady guard dog; and a loyal family companion.

The American Bulldog was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1999.

General Appearance
The American Bulldog is a powerful, athletic short-coated dog, strongly muscled, and well boned. The body is just slightly longer than tall. The head is large and broad with a wide muzzle. Ears are small to medium in size, high set, and may be drop, semi-prick, rose, or cropped. The tail may be docked or natural. The American Bulldog comes in solid colors, white with colored patches, and brindle. Gender differences are well expressed in this breed, with males typically larger and more muscular than females. Honorable scars resulting from field work are not to be penalized. The American Bulldog should be evaluated as a working dog, and exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with the dog's ability to work.

Characteristics
The essential characteristics of the American Bulldog are those which enable it to work as a hog and cattle catching dog, and a protector of personal property. These tasks require a powerful, agile, confident dog with a large head and powerful jaws. The American Bulldog is a gentle, loving family companion who is fearless enough to face an angry bull or a human intruder. Note: It is common for young American Bulldogs to be somewhat standoffish with strangers and judges should not penalize this. By the time the dog is around 18 months of age, however, the breed's normal confidence asserts itself.

Disqualifications: Viciousness or extreme shyness; cowardice.

Head
The head is large and broad giving the impression of great power. When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle are parallel to one another and joined by a well-defined stop. The stop is very deep and abrupt, almost at a right angle with the muzzle. Despite the depth of the stop, the forehead is wider than it is high.

SKULL -- The skull is large, flat, deep, and broad between the ears. Viewed from the top, the skull is square. There is a deep median furrow that diminishes in depth from the stop to the occiput. Cheek muscles are prominent.

MUZZLE -- The muzzle is broad and thick with a very slight taper from the stop to the nose. The length of the muzzle is equal to 35 to 45 percent of the length of the head. Lips are moderately thick but not pendulous. The chin is well defined and must neither overlap the upper lip nor be covered by it.

TEETH -- The American Bulldog has a complete set of large, evenly spaced, white teeth. The preferred bite is undershot with the inside of the lower incisors extending in front of the upper incisors up to ¼ inch. A scissors bite is acceptable. A level bite and extreme undershot bite are considered faults to the degree that the bite interferes with the dog's ability to work. Teeth are not visible when the mouth is closed. Worn teeth or broken teeth are acceptable.

Disqualification: Overshot.

NOSE -- The nose is large with wide, open nostrils. The nose may be any color but darker pigment is preferred.

EYES -- Eyes are medium in size, round, and set well apart. All colors are acceptable but brown is preferred. Haw is not visible. Dark eye rims are preferred.

Faults: Very visible haws.

EARS -- Ears may be cropped but natural ears are preferred. Natural ears are small to medium in size, high set, and may be drop, semi-prick, or rose.

Drop ears: The ears are set high, level with the upper line of the skull, accentuating the skull's width. At the base, the ear is just slightly raised in front and then hangs along the cheek. The tip is slightly rounded. When pulled toward the eye, the ear should not extend past the outside corner of the eye.

Semi-prick ears: Same as drop ears except that only the tips of the ears drop forward.

Rose ears: Rose ears are small and set high on the skull.

Fault: Hound ears.

Neck
The neck is where the American Bulldog exerts power to bring down livestock. The neck must be long enough to exert leverage, but short enough to exert power. The neck is muscular and, at its widest point, is nearly as broad as the head, with a slight arch at the crest, and tapering slightly from shoulders to the head. A slight dewlap is acceptable.

Faults: Neck too short and thick; thin or weak neck.

Forequarters

The shoulders are strong and well muscled. The shoulder blade is well laid back and forms, with the upper arm, an apparent 90-degree angle. The tips of the shoulder blades are set about 2 to 3 finger-widths apart.

The forelegs are heavily boned and very muscular. The elbows are set on a plane parallel to the body, neither close to the body nor turned out. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are perpendicular to the ground or may, especially in a dog with a very broad chest, incline slightly inward. The pasterns are short, powerful, and slightly sloping when viewed in profile. Viewed from the front, the pasterns are straight.

Body

The chest is deep and moderately wide with ample room for heart and lungs. The ribs are well sprung from the spine and then flatten to form a deep body extending at least to the elbows, or lower in adult dogs. The topline inclines very slightly downward from well-developed withers to a broad, muscular back. The loin is short, broad, and slightly arched, blending into a moderately sloping croup. The flank is moderately tucked up and firm.

Serious faults: Swayback; sloping topline.

Hindquarters

The hindquarters are well muscled and broad. The width and angulation of the hindquarters is in balance with the width and angulation of the forequarters. The thighs are well developed with thick, easily discerned muscles. The lower thighs are muscular and short. Viewed from the side, the rear pasterns are well let down and perpen-dicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are straight and parallel to one another.

Faults: Cowhocks; open hocks.

Serious faults: Narrow or weak hindquarters.

Feet
The feet are round, medium in size, well arched, and tight.
Fault: Splayed feet. The seriousness of this fault is based on the amount of splay in the feet.

Tail

The American Bulldog may have a natural or a docked tail, but the natural tail is preferred. The natural tail is very thick at the base, and tapers to a point. The tail is set low. A "pump handle" tail is preferred but any tail carriage from upright, when the dog is excited, to relaxed between the hocks is acceptable.

Serious fault: Tail curled over the back; corkscrew tail; upright tail when the dog is relaxed.

Coat

The coat is short, close, and stiff to the touch.
Disqualifications: Long or wavy coat.

Color

Any color, color pattern, or combination of colors is acceptable, except for solid black, solid blue, and tricolor (white with patches of black and tan). Some dark brindle coats may appear black unless examined in very bright light. A buckskin color pattern, where the base of the hair is fawn and the tips are black, may also appear solid black. A judge should not disqualify an American Bulldog for black color unless the dog has been examined in sunlight or other equally bright light.

Disqualifications: Solid black or blue with no white markings; tricolor (white with patches of black and tan).

Height and Weight

The American Bulldog must be sufficiently powerful and agile to chase, catch, and bring down free-ranging livestock. Dogs capable of doing this come in a rather wide range of height and weight. Males are typically larger with heavier bone and more muscle than females. Both sexes, however, should have a well-balanced overall appearance.

Desirable height in a mature male ranges from 22 to 27 inches; in a mature female, from 20 to 25 inches. Desirable weight in a mature male ranges from 75 to 125 pounds; in a mature female, from 60 to 100 pounds.

Gait
When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good reach in front and drive behind. When moving, the backline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance.

Poor movement should be penalized to the degree to which it reduces the American Bulldog's ability to perform the tasks it was bred to do.

Disqualifications

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Cowardice. Overshot. Long or wavy coat. Albinism. Solid black or blue with no white markings. Tricolor (white with patches of black and tan).

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American Pitbull Terrier
Official U.K.C. Breed Standard

History

Sometime during the nineteenth century, dog fanciers in England, Ireland, and Scotland began to experiment with crosses between Bulldogs and Terriers, looking for a dog that combined the gameness of the terrier with the strength and athleticism of the Bulldog. The result was a dog that embodied all of the virtues attributed to great warriors: strength, indomitable courage, and gentleness with loved ones. Immigrants brought these bull and terrier crosses to the United States. The American Pit Bull Terrier's many talents did not go unnoticed by farmers and ranchers who used their APBTs for protection, as catch dogs for semi-wild cattle and hogs, to hunt, to drive livestock, and as family companions. Today, the American Pit Bull Terrier continues to demonstrate its versatility, competing successfully in Obedience, Tracking, Agility, Protection, and Weight Pulls, as well as Conformation.

The United Kennel Club was the first registry to recognize the American Pit Bull Terrier. U.K.C. founder C. Z. Bennett assigned U.K.C. registration number 1 to his own APBT, Bennett's Ring in 1898.

General Appearance

The American Pit Bull Terrier is a medium-sized, solidly built, short-coated dog with smooth, well-defined musculature. This breed is both powerful and athletic. The body is just slightly longer than tall, but bitches may be somewhat longer in body than dogs. The length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) is approximately equal to one-half of the dog's height at the withers. The head is of medium length, with a broad, flat skull, and a wide, deep muzzle. Ears are small to medium in size, high set, and may be natural or cropped. The relatively short tail is set low, thick at the base and tapers to a point. The American Pit Bull Terrier comes in all colors and color patterns. This breed combines strength and athleticism with grace and agility and should never appear bulky or muscle-bound or fine-boned and rangy.

Characteristics

The essential characteristics of the American Pit Bull Terrier are strength, confidence, and zest for life. This breed is eager to please and brimming over with enthusiasm. APBTs make excellent family companions and have always been noted for their love of children. Because most APBTs exhibit some level of dog aggression and because of its powerful physique, the APBT requires an owner who will carefully socialize and obedience train the dog. The breed's natural agility makes it one of the most capable canine climbers so good fencing is a must for this breed. The APBT is not the best choice for a guard dog since they are extremely friendly, even with strangers. Aggressive behavior toward humans is uncharacteristic of the breed and highly undesirable. This breed does very well in performance events because of its high level of intelligence and its willingness to work.

The American Pit Bull Terrier has always been capable of doing a wide variety of jobs so exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with the dog's versatility.

Head

The APBT head is unique and a key element of breed type. It is large and broad, giving the impression of great power, but it is not disproportionate to the size of the body. Viewed from the front, the head is shaped like a broad, blunt wedge. When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle are parallel to one another and joined by a well defined, moderately deep stop. Supraorbital arches over the eyes are well defined but not pronounced. The head is well chiseled, blending strength, elegance, and character.

SKULL - The skull is large, flat or slightly rounded, deep, and broad between the ears. Viewed from the top, the skull tapers just slightly toward the stop. There is a deep median furrow that diminishes in depth from the stop to the occiput. Cheek muscles are prominent but free of wrinkles. When the dog is concentrating, wrinkles form on the forehead, which give the APBT his unique expression.

MUZZLE - The muzzle is broad and deep with a very slight taper from the stop to the nose, and a slight falling away under the eyes. The length of muzzle is shorter than the length of skull, with a ratio of approximately 2:3. The topline of the muzzle is straight. The lower jaw is well developed, wide and deep. Lips are clean and tight.

Faults: Snipey muzzle; flews; weak lower jaw.

TEETH - The American Pit Bull Terrier has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite.

Fault: Level bite.

Serious Faults: Undershot, or overshot bite; wry mouth; missing teeth (this does not apply to teeth that have been lost or removed by a veterinarian).

NOSE - The nose is large with wide, open nostrils. The nose may be any color.

EYES - Eyes are medium size, round to almond-shaped, and set well apart and low on the skull. All colors are equally acceptable except blue, which is a serious fault. Haw should not be visible.

Serious Faults: Bulging eyes; both eyes not matched in color; blue eyes.

EARS - Ears are high set and may be natural or cropped without preference. If natural, semi-prick or rose are preferred. Prick or flat, wide ears are not desired.

Neck

The neck is of moderate length and muscular. There is a slight arch at the crest. The neck widens gradually from where it joins the skull to where it blends into well laid-back shoulders. The skin on the neck is tight and without dewlap.

Faults: Neck too short and thick; thin or weak neck; ewe neck; dewlap.

Forequarters

The shoulder blades are long, wide, muscular, and well laid back. The upper arm is roughly equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an apparent right angle.

The forelegs are strong and muscular. The elbows are set close to the body. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are set moderately wide apart and perpendicular to the ground. The pasterns are short, powerful, straight, and flexible. When viewed in profile, the pasterns are nearly erect.

Faults: Upright or loaded shoulders; elbows turned outward or tied-in; down at the pasterns; front legs bowed; wrists knuckled over; toeing in or out.

Body
The chest is deep, well filled in, and moderately wide with ample room for heart and lungs, but the chest should never be wider than it is deep. The forechest does not extend much beyond the point of shoulder. The ribs extend well back and are well sprung from the spine, then flattening to form a deep body extending to the elbows. The back is strong and firm. The topline inclines very slightly downward from the withers to a broad, muscular, level back. The loin is short, muscular and slightly arched to the top of the croup, but narrower than the rib cage and with a moderate tuck-up. The croup is slightly sloping downward.

Hindquarters

The hindquarters are strong, muscular, and moderately broad. The rump is well filled in on each side of the tail and deep from the pelvis to the crotch. The bone, angulation, and musculature of the hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The thighs are well developed with thick, easily discerned muscles. Viewed from the side, the hock joint is well bent and the rear pasterns are well let down and perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are straight and parallel to one another.

Faults: Narrow hindquarters; hindquarters shallow from pelvis to crotch; lack of muscle; straight or over angulated stifle joint; cow hocks; sickle hocks; bowed legs.

Feet
The feet are round, proportionate to the size of the dog, well arched, and tight. Pads are hard, tough, and well cushioned. Dewclaws may be removed.

Fault: Splayed feet.

Tail
The tail is set on as a natural extension of the topline, and tapers to a point. When the dog is relaxed, the tail is carried low and extends approximately to the hock. When the dog is moving, the tail is carried level with the backline. When the dog is excited, the tail may be carried in a raised, upright position (challenge tail), but never curled over the back (gay tail).

Fault: Long tail (tail tip passes beyond point of hock).

Serious faults: Gay tail (not to be confused with challenge tail); kinked tail.

Disqualification: Bobbed tail.
Coat
The coat is glossy and smooth, close, and moderately stiff to the touch.

Faults: Curly, wavy, or sparse coat.
Disqualification: Long coat.
Color

Any color, color pattern, or combination of colors is acceptable, except for merle.

Disqualification: Merle

Height and Weight

The American Pit Bull Terrier must be both powerful and agile so actual weight and height are less important than the correct proportion of weight to height. Desirable weight for a mature male in good condition is between 35 and 60 pounds. Desirable weight for a mature female in good condition is between 30 and 50 pounds. Dogs over these weights are not to be penalized unless they are disproportionately massive or rangy.

Gait

The American Pit Bull Terrier moves with a jaunty, confident attitude, conveying the impression that he expects any minute to see something new and exciting. When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful, and well coordinated, showing good reach in front and drive behind. When moving, the backline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance.

Faults: Legs not moving on the same plane; legs over reaching; legs crossing over in front or rear; rear legs moving too close or touching; rolling; pacing; paddling; sidewinding; hackney action; pounding.

Disqualifications

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Bobbed tail. Albinism. Merle.

Note: Although some level of dog aggression is characteristic of this breed, handlers will be expected to comply with UKC policy regarding dog temperament at UKC shows

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Official Breed Standard
of the
Kennel Union of South Africa
BOERBOEL


CHARACTERISTICS
Must have a good temperament with controlled aggressiveness. Must be intelligent with a steadfast and balanced nature and be faithful to his master until death. Must possess the characteristics of a good watchdog and be loving towards his owners with a special liking for children. Must possess enormous self-confidence.
GENERAL APPEARANCE
Must be large, solid, strong and well muscled. Be an impressive, well balanced dog with no obvious signs of any other breed.
CONFORMATION
Head - large and strong. Short, broad and deep symmetrical and balanced flat between the ears the ideal nasal bone length of males is 10cm and that of bitches 8cm and must be straight with no upturn the stop not too prominent nostrils large and widely spaced

Eyes - well formed with well pigmented lids no bulge - brow bone not prominent
Ears - medium size and V-shaped and in relation to the rest of the head fall naturally against the head and positioned fairly high
Jaws - strong, straight and broad well shut. The ideal is a scissor bite lips must be pigmented and not too fleshy and must cover the teeth
Neck - strong and muscled loose dewlap tautening between the legs form a well-balanced unity between head and body
FOREQUARTERS
Chest - must be strong, well muscled, broad and deep in relation to the dog and its body, with
ample chest capacity
Front Legs - straight, sturdy and positioned under the body with slightly angulated but firm fetlocks
Shoulders - strong, muscled and supple
Elbows - must not stand out or bend in so that the dog has a comfortable movement
Body - length must be in relation to the size of the dog
Back - strong with a relatively straight topline
Loin - fairly short and well muscled
HINDQUARTERS must be strong, muscled and well constructed
Legs - sturdy with slightly angulated but firm fetlocks
Hocks - correctly angulated and under the body when moving
Paws - well padded, noticeably larger in front must not turn out or in, pointing straight forward
Tail - preferably docked. (Long tails are allowed). forms a unity with the dog and set fairly high with no deformity
COAT - short and smooth
COLOUR - any colour is acceptable providing strong pigmentation is present
MOVEMENT powerful and purposeful in line front to rear
SIZE
Height : Males - ideal height between 60 and 70cm
Females- between 55 and 65cm
Weight :Fully grown and prime condition :
Males - between 60 and 75kg
Females - between 50 and 65kg
FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
NOTE
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.


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KANGAL DOG
Official U.K.C. Breed Standard


History

The Kangal Dog is an ancient flock-guarding breed, thought to be related to the early mastiff-type dogs depicted in Assyrian art. The breed is named for the Kangal District of Sivas Province in Central Turkey where it probably originated. Although the breed has long been associated with the family of the Aga of Kangal, large landholders and chieftains, the majority are bred by villagers who take great pride in the dogs' ability to guard their flocks of sheep and goats from such traditional predators as the wolf, bear, and jackal. The relative isolation of the Sivas-Kangal region has kept the Kangal Dog free of cross-breeding and has resulted in a natural breed of remarkable uniformity in appearance, disposition, and behavior. Despite its regional origin, many Turks consider the Kangal Dog as their national dog. Turkish government and academic institutions operate breeding kennels where Kangal Dogs are bred and pedigrees are carefully maintained. The Kangal Dog has even appeared on a Turkish postage stamp.

The Kangal Dog was first reported in European and North American canine literature by David and Judith Nelson, Americans who studied the dogs while resident in Turkey. The Nelsons imported their first Kangal Dog to the United States in 1985. This dog, and subsequent imports, provided the foundation for the Kangal Dog in the United States.

The Kangal Dog was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1998.

General Appearance

The Kangal Dog is a large, powerful, heavy-boned dog, whose size and proportions have developed naturally as a result of its continued use in Turkey as a guardian against predators. The head is large and moderately wide with drop ears. A properly proportioned Kangal Dog is slightly longer (measured from prosternum to point of buttocks) than tall (measured from the withers to the ground), and length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) should equal slightly more than one-half of the dog's height. The tail, which is typically curled, completes the distinctive silhouette. The Kangal Dog has a double coat that is moderately short and quite dense. The Kangal Dog has a black mask and black velvety ears that contrast with a whole body color which may range from light dun to gray. Honorable scars or other evidences of injury resulting from working in the field are not to be penalized.

Characteristics

The typical Kangal Dog is first and foremost a stock guardian dog and possesses a temperament typical of such dogs-alert, territorial, and defensive of the domestic animals or the human family to which it has bonded. The Kangal Dog has the strength, speed, and courage to intercept and confront threats to the flocks of sheep and goats that it guards both in Turkey and the New World. Kangal Dogs prefer to intimidate predators but will take a physical stand and even attack if necessary. Kangal Dogs have an instinctive wariness of strange dogs but are not typically belligerent toward people. They are somewhat reserved with strangers but loyal and affectionate with family.

Head

The head is large but in proportion to the size of the dog without appearing heavy or coarse. The female's head is somewhat more refined than the male's head. Viewed from above, the broad skull tapers very slightly toward the place where the muzzle joins it and then tapers slightly from the base of the muzzle toward the nose. When viewed from the side, the length of the muzzle, measured from stop to the end of the nose, is slightly shorter than the length of the skull, measured from occiput to stop, in an approximate ratio of 2:3.

Faults: Narrow head.

SKULL -- The skull is broad between the ears and slightly domed. The ratio of skull width in relation to total head length is approximately 3:5. There is a slight central furrow which runs from the middle of the skull through the stop and gradually broadens into the wide base of the muzzle. The cheeks are moderately well developed. The stop is well-defined but not abrupt.

Faults: Skull too flat; skull too narrow

MUZZLE -- The muzzle is deep and moderately blunt due, in part, to the development of the upper lips which are somewhat padded, especially in mature males. When viewed from the side, the jaws are of equal length. The muzzle is blockier and stronger in the male. The lips are fairly tight and always black.

Faults: Snipey muzzle; over-developed flews.

TEETH -- The Kangal Dog has a complete set of large, evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors or level bite. Broken teeth resulting from field work are not to be penalized.

Serious faults: Over or undershot bite; more than two teeth missing; wry mouth.

NOSE -- The nose is large and solid black.

Disqualification: Liver or chocolate-colored nose

EYES -- The eyes are medium sized, somewhat round, set well apart and show no haw. Eye color ranges from deep brown to amber. Eye rims are black.

Serious faults: Pale yellow eyes; lack of solid black pigment on the eye rims; loose eye rims.

EARS -- The ears are pendant, medium sized, triangular in shape and rounded at the tips. The ears are set even with the outside corners of the skull. When alert, the ears may be carried slightly higher. The front edge of the ear is carried close to the cheek and, when pulled forward, the ears should amply cover the dog's eyes. In puppies, the ears may appear disproportionately large. In Turkey, the majority of Kangal Dogs have their ears cropped as puppies. Cropped ears on a dog imported from Turkey should not be penalized, but cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog are a disqualification.

Faults: Any ear carriage other than pendant; ears set too high or too low; ears too large or too small.

Disqualification: Cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog.

Neck

The neck is powerful and muscular, moderate in length, slightly arched, and rather thick. Some dewlap is present.

Faults: Short, heavy neck; overly long neck; exaggerated dewlap.

Forequarters

The shoulders are well muscled and moderately angulated. The forelegs are long, well boned, and set well apart, with strong, slightly sloping pasterns. The elbows move freely and close to the sides. The front quarters are slightly heavier in proportion to the hindquarters.

Faults: Loose shoulders or elbows in mature dogs; bowed front legs; feet that turn in or out; chest too wide or too narrow.

Body

The body is powerful and muscular. The line of the back inclines very slightly downward from the withers, levels, and then rises with a slight arch over the short, muscular loin which blends into a moderately short and slightly sloping croup. The ribs are well sprung. The moderately wide chest is deep with the brisket extending down to the elbow. Tuck-up is moderate. The Kangal Dog is a working dog and should always be presented in well-muscled condition.

Faults: Narrow or poorly muscled chest; narrow rib cage; barrel chest; long back or long loin; steep croup; overweight or lack of muscle.

Hindquarters

The hindquarters are powerful and well-muscled although somewhat less substantial than the forequarters. The rear legs are well-boned and moderately angulated at the stifle and hock joints. The hind legs are parallel when viewed from the rear. The rear pasterns are moderate in length and slope slightly forward from the hock joint when the dog is standing in a natural position.

Faults: Poorly muscled thighs; insufficient or over-angulation at stifle or hock; rear feet turning in or out.

Feet

The feet are large with the front feet somewhat larger than the rear feet. They are either rounded or oval in shape with well-cushioned pads and toes that may be webbed. Nails, which may be black, white, or mixed in color, should be kept blunt. Rear dewclaws may be absent, present, single, or double. Dewclaws may be removed.

Faults: Splayed feet.

Tail

The tail, which is set at the end of the croup is uncut, thick at the base, and tapering to the tip. The hair is slightly fuller on the tail than on the body. When the dog is in repose, the rather long tail reaches at least to the hock. When the dog is alert, the tail is carried in a curl over the back. The curl may be tight or loose but when the tail is curled tightly, the tip of the tail may fall off to one side of the back.

Faults: Extensive tail feathering or plumed tail; tail too short or too long; tail carried off-center (to the side of one hip) when curled; kinked tail.

Coat

The Kangal Dog has a short double coat, neither wavy nor fluffy. In cold weather, the coat is very dense, nearly uniform in length. In warm weather, much of the undercoat is shed, leaving a short, flatter outer coat. The outer coat is harsh and the undercoat is very soft, dense, and sometimes gray in color. The hair on the neck, shoulders and tail is only slightly longer than the hair on the body. The hair on the tail is never plumed or feathered. Most Kangal Dogs have a strip of flatter hair along the topline. The hair on the face, head, and ears is quite short.

Faults: Feathering anywhere on the body or on the legs or tail; lack of undercoat; medium, long or shaggy coat.

Color

Color is an important characteristic of the Kangal Dog. In Turkey, non-standard colors or patterns are indicators that the dog is not a purebred Kangal Dog. The true Kangal Dog color is always solid and ranges from a light dun or pale, dull gold to a steel gray, depending on the amount of black or gray in the outer guard hairs and in the soft, cashmere-like undercoat. This basic color is set off by a black mask which may completely cover the muzzle and even extend over the top of the head. Ears are always black. White is only permitted on the feet, chest and chin. The white on the feet may extend half way up the forearm. The white on the chest may range from a small spot to a blaze which may extend in a narrow stripe under the chest. Such blazes are frequently outlined with dark hair. Only a small white spot is allowed on the chin. The tip of the tail is usually black and a black spot in the middle of the tail is often present.

Disqualifications: Solid black, white, or chocolate colored dogs; dogs with piebald, brindle or other parti-colored patterns; white markings on the face other than the small white spot on the chin; albinism.

Faults: Poorly defined black mask.

Height and Weight

Desirable height at maturity (minimum two years), measured at the withers, ranges from 30 to 32 inches for males and 28 to 30 inches for females. A male Kangal Dog in good condition should weigh between 110 and 145 pounds. A female should weigh between 90 and 120 pounds. Height and weight in both sexes may exceed the foregoing and should not be penalized as long as overall balance is maintained.

Fault: Obese, soft condition.

Gait

The Kangal Dog's movement reflects the breed's combination of strength and agility. Its natural gait is relaxed and efficient with strides of moderate length. The back remains level, and the front and rear legs on each side move in a parallel fashion. As speed increases, however, the width between the legs decreases and the tendency to single track increases. Pacing at a slow gait is acceptable

Disqualifications

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness, marked shyness or cowardliness. Piebald, brindle, or parti-colored coat color patterns. White, black, chocolate, or liver whole body color. Liver or chocolate color nose. Albinism. Cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog.


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LOUISIANA CATAHOULA LEOPARD DOG
Official U.K.C. Breed Standard
Revised April 15, 2003


History

The origins of the Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog are unknown but it is believed to be descended from crosses between Native American dogs, Red Wolves (some of whom lived as pariahs on the outskirts of Indian villages), and the dogs brought to the New World by Spanish conquistadors, probably mastiff-types and sighthounds. Some experts believe Beaucerons were added to the mix when the area was settled by the French. White settlers in Louisiana found the Native Americans using these unusual-looking dogs to hunt a variety of wild game, including deer, bobcat, wild hog, and bear. The new arrivals soon came to appreciate this versatile breed that was equally capable of scenting, trailing and treeing game, or baying and herding feral hogs and cattle.

There are many stories regarding the origin of the breed's exotic name: Catahoula. The most likely is that it is a corruption of the Indian word that meant "Choctaw," the name of a local tribe.

The only thing certain is that the Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog is an all-American multi-purpose working dog. On July 9, 1979, the governor of Louisiana signed a bill making this breed the official State Dog of Louisiana.

The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1995.

General Appearance

The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog is a medium to medium-large, short-coated dog with a broad head, small-to-medium drop ears, and an undocked tail set on as a natural extension of the topline. The Catahoula is well muscled and powerful but not bulky, giving the impression of agility and endurance. The Catahoula is a moderate breed and should not resemble either a sighthound or a bulldog in appearance. The body is just slightly longer than tall and the distance from the elbow to the ground should equal 50-60% of the dog's height from the withers to the ground. The Catahoula should be evaluated as a multi-purpose working dog, and exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with the dog's ability to work.

Characteristics

Because of the breed's name, many people assume that all Catahoulas have the so-called "leopard" markings and blue eyes. In fact, the breed is noted for its many and unusual coat colors and patterns, as well as varied eye color.

Catahoula temperament ranges from serious and business-like when working to clownish at home, with varying levels of energy. It is not uncommon for Catahoulas to be aloof with strangers, which often results in a lack of animation when showing and may cause some to draw away from judges when being examined. Catahoulas should never be excessively aggressive or shy. They can be independent, protective and territorial so they require firm guidance and a clear understanding of their place in the family unit. Catahoulas are affectionate, gentle and loyal family companions.

Head

The head is powerfully built without appearing exaggerated. Viewed from the side, the length of skull and muzzle are approximately equal in length, and joined by a well-defined stop of moderate length. The planes of the topskull and the bridge of the muzzle are roughly parallel to one another. There may be a slight median furrow between the eyes and running back to the occipital bone. Gender differences should be apparent in the characteristics of the head.

SKULL - The skull is broad and flat. The cheeks are well developed.

Fault: Excessively broad skull; narrow skull.

MUZZLE - The muzzle is strong and deep. Viewed from above, the muzzle is moderately wide and tapering toward the nose. Lips may be tight or slightly pendulous with pigment of any color or combination of colors.

Faults: Snipey muzzle.

TEETH - The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth. A scissors bite is preferred but a level bite is acceptable. Full dentition is greatly desired but dogs are not to be penalized for worn or broken teeth.

Serious Faults: Overshot or undershot bite.

NOSE - Nose pigment may be any color or combination of colors.

EYES - Eyes are set moderately well apart, medium in size, somewhat rounded in appearance, and are set well into the skull. Eyes may be any color or combination of colors without preference. Eye rims are tight and may be any color or combination of colors.

Serious faults: Malformed pupils; pupils not centered; sagging eyelids making haw visible; functional abnormality of eyelids or eyelashes.

EARS - Ears are drop, short to medium in length, moderate in size, and proportionally wide at the base, gradually tapering to the slightly rounded tip. They should fold over and be generally triangular in shape. The top of the ear fold is level or just slightly below the top line of the skull. When the dog is at attention, the inner edge of the ear lies close to the cheek. Laid-back ears are acceptable but not preferred.

Faults: Any ear type other than described above.

Disqualification: Cropped ears.

Neck

The neck is muscular and of good length, without being overdone. The circumference of the neck widens from the nape to where the neck blends smoothly into the shoulders.

Faults: Neck too short and thick or too thin and weak; excess skin forming dewlap.

Forequarters

The shoulders are strong and smoothly muscled. The shoulder blades are long, wide, flat and well laid back. The upper arm is roughly equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an angle sufficient to ensure that the foot falls under the withers. The elbows are close to the body and do not turn out. The forelegs are straight, and of medium bone, indicating strength without excessive thickness. Pasterns are strong, short, and slightly sloping. The length of the forelegs should roughly equal 50-60% of the dog's height at the withers. A dog with legs shorter than the ideal is to be more heavily penalized than a dog with longer legs.

Faults: Forequarters significantly heavier than hindquarters; bone too heavy or too fine; straight shoulders; out at elbows; weak pasterns.

Body

A properly proportioned Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog is slightly longer than tall. The topline inclines very slightly downward from well-developed withers to a level back. The back is broad and well muscled with a short, strong, slightly arched loin. A slightly longer loin is acceptable in females. The ribs extend well back and are well sprung out from the spine. The chest is deep, reaching at least to the elbows, and moderately broad. When viewed from the side, the forechest extends in a shallow oval shape in front of the forelegs. Tuck-up is apparent but not exaggerated. Croup is medium to long and slightly sloping. A slightly elevated rear resulting from slightly straighter rear angulation should not be penalized too severely.

Faults: Chest too broad, too narrow or too shallow; soft topline; exaggerated or absent tuck-up; loin too long.

Hindquarters

Hindquarters are strong and smoothly muscled. Width and angulation of hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The stifles are well bent, and the hocks are well let down. When the dog is standing, the short, strong rear pasterns are perpendicular to the ground and, viewed from the rear, parallel to one another.

Faults: Thin, weak hindquarters; cow-hocked; open-hocked.

Feet

Good feet are essential for a working dog. Feet are well knit and oval in shape. Toes are long, webbed and well arched. Pads are thick and hard. Nails are strong. Dewclaws may be removed.

Fault: Cat foot.

Tail

The tail is a natural extension of the topline. It is thicker at the base and tapers to the tip. A tail of the correct length extends to the hock. When the dog is relaxed, the tail hangs down naturally. When the dog is moving or alert, the tail may be carried upright with the tip curving forward. Catahoulas should be allowed to carry their tails naturally when being shown. Exhibitors should not hold the tails upright.

Faults: Ring tail; tail that forms a hook at the end; natural bobtail; docked tail.

Coat

The Catahoula has a single coat, short to medium in length that lies flat and close to the body. Texture ranges from smooth to coarse, without preference.

Disqualification: Long coat; fuzzy coat that obscures the outline of the dog.

Color

Catahoulas come in an endless variety of coat colors and patterns. All color combinations and patterns can have color points or trim, which may be located on the chest, cheeks, above the eyes, on the legs, underbody or under the tail. The Leopard pattern has a base color with contrasting spots of one or more other colors. Solids have a single coat color. Brindles may have a light or dark base coat color with contrasting stripes. The Patchwork pattern may or may not have one predominant solid color with one or more different size patches of different colors and shades placed randomly on the body. Colors must be rich and deep. No coat color or pattern is preferred.

Fault: Washed out colors.

Serious fault: 70 percent or more white.

Disqualification: 90 percent or more white coat color; solid white head; albinism.

Height and Weight

Ideal height at maturity for males is 24 inches and for females, 22 inches, with a variation of two inches either way acceptable. Weight may range from 50 to 95 pounds, in proportion to the dog's height. The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog must be both powerful and agile so actual weight and height are less important than the correct proportion of weight to height. Catahoulas should always be presented in hard, working condition. Any deviation from the ideal must be judged by the extent of the deviation, and the effect it has on the dog's ability to work.

Gait

When trotting, the gait is smooth, fluid and effortless, showing good but not exaggerated reach in front and powerful drive behind. The topline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance. Poor movement should be penalized to the degree to which it reduces the Catahoula's ability to perform the tasks it was bred to do.

Disqualifications

Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Cropped ears. Long coat. Fuzzy coat that obscures the outline of the dog. 90 percent or more white coat color. Solid white head. Albinism.

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NEBOLISH MASTIFF-
Standard of the Nebolish Club of America

Description- The Nebolish is a dog of great presence, the most agile of the Mastiff breeds. His intelligence, loyal affection and fearless courage make him a highly desired companion. An excellent family member, often used as a working dog or livestock protector. Good natured, patient and playful with children. Should be of strong muscular structure, large boned, wide chest. Head- broad with natural ears, a short wide snout, scissor bite, excessive flews are not desired. No slobber problem. Coat- short medium length. Colors- Fawn, Brindle, in all shades including Rare Silver. Markings- Black mask, White markings are permitted, but not desired. Tail maybe docked.

Temperament- Very even tempered, Alert, Dignified, Not excessive barkers, Almost human expression, Loyal, Easy to train, Naturally protective.

Height-Weight- 27" to 36" inches Weight- 95 to 190lbs Male or Female should reach over 100lbs and have very solid muscular structure. The focus being a dog that is sound and works, agile even at a mature age.

Health Problems- No breed is free from health ailments, there have been none that the Nebolish is predisposed to. The Nebolish was developed to be a large agile dog, free of genetic defects. Breeding of Mastiffs is not recommended for the novice, there are many breeding problems with Mastiffs it is recommended to spay to ensure a longer life span.

Living Conditions- Not for the apartment dweller, can get by on a daily walk and a large yard, but enjoy acreage to explore. Not prone to roam but must be contained because of the intimidation of his size! Once boundaries are established Nebolish will stay in a 4 ft or stock fence with no problem. Nebolish were developed in Northwest colder climate, spending winter infront of the fireplace. They thrive in warm climate, love the sun and water.

Exercise- Need room to run, love to swim and hike. The adult Nebolish is at home living indoors, but they need that daily walk in the woods! These dogs love to check the pastures with there owners, they will make certain all fences are secure and free of intruders!

Life Expectancy- 10 to 14years

Grooming- Very minimal, a brisk brush, occasional bath the Nebolish love water!

Origin- With over 80 Mastiff types, the Nebolish is one of the rarest. They were developed in late 1960's in the NorthAmerica
The breed developed to increase the agility, health and life expectancy of the Mastiff by crossing Old English, Bull, Dogue de Bordeaux, Mastiffs, and it is supected that the Great Dane, Boxer, Saint Bernard maybe in the bloodline. There has never been an exact breakdown of the breeding program, to keep the line pure the exact breedings, that evolved to the Nebolish we know today has never been disclosed. The Nebolish ancestry can be traced back to Aristotele and Alexander the Great, who recieved these large dogs for soldiers protection from Lions. The Noble Loyal Healthy Mastiff is not a new breed, but a breed which was lost in history and now rediscovered in the Nebolish Mastiff.

Group- Mastiff - Working

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Olde English Bulldogge
Breed Standard - A.R.B.A.


GENERAL: Re-Creation of original Bulldogge
APPEARANCE: Medium sized dog. Powerfully built and showing great strength. Weight for males is 60 lbs. and up. Females 50 lbs. and up. Height at shoulders for males 17" and up. Females 16" and up. He should be alert, with a symmetrical, well proportioned body. The dog should be cobby, but have the appearance of an athlete. .
TEMPERAMENT: Friendly, but a fearless adversary to anyone who threatens his master or property. Unfriendliness to strangers isn't a defect, although it's unusual.
HEAD: Large in proportion to body and square. Deeply sunken between eyes, extending up forehead. Moderately wrinkled. Jaw muscles large. Lower jaw turned up and protruding. Bite squared, but undershot. Large tusks. Eyes low and wide set. Forehead flat. Muzzle short and broad. Flews semi-pendulous. Ears may be either rose or button and should be set high and wide. Dewlap will have two folds.
BODY: Neck should be short and nearly as wide as the head. Shoulders very broad and muscular. Front legs may be slightly bowed or straight. Ribs well rounded and chest wide and deep. Back short, slightly roached and strong. Belly well tucked up. Thighs very muscular. Rear legs neither pigeon-toed or cow-hocked. Tails must be straight.
COAT: Short, close and medium fine.
COLOR: Brindle of red, grey, or black. Brindle spots on white. Solid white. Fawn, red or black, solid or with white. Pink noses and pink skin around eyes are undesirable, but not a disqualification

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Victorian Bulldog Standard

GENERAL APPEARANCE A medium size, smooth-coated dog with a solid but active countenance. Large headed and thick boned, only to the point that it does not impede vigor. Broad muzzled and short faced, but not so excessive as to interfere with breathing. Hindquarters somewhat higher and not as heavy as foreparts, but not so as to destroy the symmetry of a muscular athlete.
TEMPERAMENT Although fierce and formidable in appearence, the dog must possess a steady, loyal and dependable nature, being bold without aggression, with a proud air of 'nothing to prove'.
HEAD The head should be large but not exaggerated out of proportion to the body. Cheeks rounded and extended sideways beyond the eyes. Face measured from front of cheek-bone to tip of nose, long enough for unhindered breathing. Muzzle broad and turning up. Undershot but not to excess. Nostrils large and wide, black preferred but dudley acceptable. Flews broad and hanging over lower jaw at sides. Teeth canines large and wide apart, with ideally six smaller teeth between a square bite (not wry). Eyes from the front, set low and wide apart. Neither bulging or sunken and on no account should the haw be visable. Ears no preference to rose or button. On no account erect or cropped.
NECK Thick, strong and arched, with loose skin forming dewlap on each side.
BODY Shoulders broad and deep. Rounded ribs with a wide chest narrowing towards the loins without exaggeration. The belly should be well tucked up and on no account rotund. A roach back is desired as long as it is not carried to excess or makes the dog look deformed. Forelegs muscular, straight and wide apart, not bandy or curved. Elbows away from ribs. Pasterns straight and strong. Hindlegs strong and muscular. Hocks slightly bent. Feet round and compact.
TAIL Either straight, turning down, or screwed. Not carried above back or docked. COAT Short.
COLOUR In order of preference: Red brindle. All other brindles. Solid white or pied. Solid red. Fawn or fallow. On no account black or black and tan. SIZE Males: 17-19 inches, 70-75 pounds Females: 16-19 inches, 55-65 pounds


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