Official U.K.C. Breed Standard
Bulldogs in England were originally working dogs who drove and caught cattle and guarded their masters' property.
The breed's strength, courage, and familiarity with livestock led to its popularity in the brutal sport of bull baiting. When
this sport was outlawed in England, the original type of Bulldog disappeared from Britain and was replaced with the shorter,
stockier, less athletic dog we now know as the English Bulldog.
The original Bulldog, however, was preserved by working class immigrants who brought their working dogs with them
to the American South. Small farmers and ranchers used this all-around working dog for many tasks. By the end of World War
II, however, the breed was almost extinct. Mr. John D. Johnson, a returning war veteran, decided to resurrect this breed.
Along with Alan Scott and several other breeders, Johnson began carefully to breed American Bulldogs, keeping careful records
and always with an eye for maintaining the breed's health and working abilities.
Because of the many different types of work this breed can do, several distinct lines evolved, each emphasizing the traits
needed to do a specific job. The best known lines are usually referred to as the Johnson and Scott types. The Johnson dogs
are more massive, with a larger, broader head and shorter muzzle, and a definite undershot bite. The Scott dogs were somewhat
lighter in musculature and bone than the Johnson dogs, with a less Mastiff-like head. Today, however, most American Bulldogs
have crosses to two or more of these lines and are not as easily distinguishable.
The modern American Bulldog continues to serve as an all-purpose working dog; a fearless and steady guard dog; and
a loyal family companion.
The American Bulldog was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1999.
The American Bulldog is a powerful, athletic short-coated dog, strongly muscled, and well boned. The body is just
slightly longer than tall. The head is large and broad with a wide muzzle. Ears are small to medium in size, high set, and
may be drop, semi-prick, rose, or cropped. The tail may be docked or natural. The American Bulldog comes in solid colors,
white with colored patches, and brindle. Gender differences are well expressed in this breed, with males typically larger
and more muscular than females. Honorable scars resulting from field work are not to be penalized. The American Bulldog should
be evaluated as a working dog, and exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with
the dog's ability to work.
The essential characteristics of the American Bulldog are those which enable it to work as a hog and cattle catching
dog, and a protector of personal property. These tasks require a powerful, agile, confident dog with a large head and powerful
jaws. The American Bulldog is a gentle, loving family companion who is fearless enough to face an angry bull or a human intruder.
Note: It is common for young American Bulldogs to be somewhat standoffish with strangers and judges should not penalize this.
By the time the dog is around 18 months of age, however, the breed's normal confidence asserts itself.
Disqualifications: Viciousness or extreme shyness; cowardice.
The head is large and broad giving the impression of great power. When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle
are parallel to one another and joined by a well-defined stop. The stop is very deep and abrupt, almost at a right angle with
the muzzle. Despite the depth of the stop, the forehead is wider than it is high.
SKULL -- The skull is large, flat, deep, and broad between the ears. Viewed from the top, the skull is square. There
is a deep median furrow that diminishes in depth from the stop to the occiput. Cheek muscles are prominent.
MUZZLE -- The muzzle is broad and thick with a very slight taper from the stop to the nose. The length of the muzzle
is equal to 35 to 45 percent of the length of the head. Lips are moderately thick but not pendulous. The chin is well defined
and must neither overlap the upper lip nor be covered by it.
TEETH -- The American Bulldog has a complete set of large, evenly spaced, white teeth. The preferred bite is undershot
with the inside of the lower incisors extending in front of the upper incisors up to ¼ inch. A scissors bite is acceptable.
A level bite and extreme undershot bite are considered faults to the degree that the bite interferes with the dog's ability
to work. Teeth are not visible when the mouth is closed. Worn teeth or broken teeth are acceptable.
NOSE -- The nose is large with wide, open nostrils. The nose may be any color but darker pigment is preferred.
EYES -- Eyes are medium in size, round, and set well apart. All colors are acceptable but brown is preferred. Haw
is not visible. Dark eye rims are preferred.
Faults: Very visible haws.
EARS -- Ears may be cropped but natural ears are preferred. Natural ears are small to medium in size, high set, and
may be drop, semi-prick, or rose.
Drop ears: The ears are set high, level with the upper line of the skull, accentuating the skull's width. At the base,
the ear is just slightly raised in front and then hangs along the cheek. The tip is slightly rounded. When pulled toward the
eye, the ear should not extend past the outside corner of the eye.
Semi-prick ears: Same as drop ears except that only the tips of the ears drop forward.
Rose ears: Rose ears are small and set high on the skull.
Fault: Hound ears.
The neck is where the American Bulldog exerts power to bring down livestock. The neck must be long enough to exert
leverage, but short enough to exert power. The neck is muscular and, at its widest point, is nearly as broad as the head,
with a slight arch at the crest, and tapering slightly from shoulders to the head. A slight dewlap is acceptable.
Faults: Neck too short and thick; thin or weak neck.
The shoulders are strong and well muscled. The shoulder blade is well laid back and forms, with the upper arm, an
apparent 90-degree angle. The tips of the shoulder blades are set about 2 to 3 finger-widths apart.
The forelegs are heavily boned and very muscular. The elbows are set on a plane parallel to the body, neither close
to the body nor turned out. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are perpendicular to the ground or may, especially in a dog
with a very broad chest, incline slightly inward. The pasterns are short, powerful, and slightly sloping when viewed in profile.
Viewed from the front, the pasterns are straight.
The chest is deep and moderately wide with ample room for heart and lungs. The ribs are well sprung from the spine
and then flatten to form a deep body extending at least to the elbows, or lower in adult dogs. The topline inclines very slightly
downward from well-developed withers to a broad, muscular back. The loin is short, broad, and slightly arched, blending into
a moderately sloping croup. The flank is moderately tucked up and firm.
Serious faults: Swayback; sloping topline.
The hindquarters are well muscled and broad. The width and angulation of the hindquarters is in balance with the width
and angulation of the forequarters. The thighs are well developed with thick, easily discerned muscles. The lower thighs are
muscular and short. Viewed from the side, the rear pasterns are well let down and perpen-dicular to the ground. Viewed from
the rear, the rear pasterns are straight and parallel to one another.
Faults: Cowhocks; open hocks.
Serious faults: Narrow or weak hindquarters.
The feet are round, medium in size, well arched, and tight.
Fault: Splayed feet. The seriousness of this fault is based on the amount of splay in the feet.
The American Bulldog may have a natural or a docked tail, but the natural tail is preferred. The natural tail is very
thick at the base, and tapers to a point. The tail is set low. A "pump handle" tail is preferred but any tail carriage
from upright, when the dog is excited, to relaxed between the hocks is acceptable.
Serious fault: Tail curled over the back; corkscrew tail; upright tail when the dog is relaxed.
The coat is short, close, and stiff to the touch.
Disqualifications: Long or wavy coat.
Any color, color pattern, or combination of colors is acceptable, except for solid black, solid blue, and tricolor
(white with patches of black and tan). Some dark brindle coats may appear black unless examined in very bright light. A buckskin
color pattern, where the base of the hair is fawn and the tips are black, may also appear solid black. A judge should not
disqualify an American Bulldog for black color unless the dog has been examined in sunlight or other equally bright light.
Disqualifications: Solid black or blue with no white markings; tricolor (white with patches of black and tan).
Height and Weight
The American Bulldog must be sufficiently powerful and agile to chase, catch, and bring down free-ranging livestock.
Dogs capable of doing this come in a rather wide range of height and weight. Males are typically larger with heavier bone
and more muscle than females. Both sexes, however, should have a well-balanced overall appearance.
Desirable height in a mature male ranges from 22 to 27 inches; in a mature female, from 20 to 25 inches. Desirable
weight in a mature male ranges from 75 to 125 pounds; in a mature female, from 60 to 100 pounds.
When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good reach in front and drive
behind. When moving, the backline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position,
legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward
center line of balance.
Poor movement should be penalized to the degree to which it reduces the American Bulldog's ability to perform the tasks
it was bred to do.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Cowardice.
Overshot. Long or wavy coat. Albinism. Solid black or blue with no white markings. Tricolor (white with patches of black and
American Pitbull Terrier
Official U.K.C. Breed Standard
Sometime during the nineteenth century, dog fanciers in England, Ireland, and Scotland began to experiment with crosses
between Bulldogs and Terriers, looking for a dog that combined the gameness of the terrier with the strength and athleticism
of the Bulldog. The result was a dog that embodied all of the virtues attributed to great warriors: strength, indomitable
courage, and gentleness with loved ones. Immigrants brought these bull and terrier crosses to the United States. The American
Pit Bull Terrier's many talents did not go unnoticed by farmers and ranchers who used their APBTs for protection, as catch
dogs for semi-wild cattle and hogs, to hunt, to drive livestock, and as family companions. Today, the American Pit Bull Terrier
continues to demonstrate its versatility, competing successfully in Obedience, Tracking, Agility, Protection, and Weight Pulls,
as well as Conformation.
The United Kennel Club was the first registry to recognize the American Pit Bull Terrier. U.K.C. founder C. Z. Bennett
assigned U.K.C. registration number 1 to his own APBT, Bennett's Ring in 1898.
The American Pit Bull Terrier is a medium-sized, solidly built, short-coated dog with smooth, well-defined musculature.
This breed is both powerful and athletic. The body is just slightly longer than tall, but bitches may be somewhat longer in
body than dogs. The length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) is approximately equal to one-half
of the dog's height at the withers. The head is of medium length, with a broad, flat skull, and a wide, deep muzzle. Ears
are small to medium in size, high set, and may be natural or cropped. The relatively short tail is set low, thick at the base
and tapers to a point. The American Pit Bull Terrier comes in all colors and color patterns. This breed combines strength
and athleticism with grace and agility and should never appear bulky or muscle-bound or fine-boned and rangy.
The essential characteristics of the American Pit Bull Terrier are strength, confidence, and zest for life. This breed
is eager to please and brimming over with enthusiasm. APBTs make excellent family companions and have always been noted for
their love of children. Because most APBTs exhibit some level of dog aggression and because of its powerful physique, the
APBT requires an owner who will carefully socialize and obedience train the dog. The breed's natural agility makes it one
of the most capable canine climbers so good fencing is a must for this breed. The APBT is not the best choice for a guard
dog since they are extremely friendly, even with strangers. Aggressive behavior toward humans is uncharacteristic of the breed
and highly undesirable. This breed does very well in performance events because of its high level of intelligence and its
willingness to work.
The American Pit Bull Terrier has always been capable of doing a wide variety of jobs so exaggerations or faults should
be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with the dog's versatility.
The APBT head is unique and a key element of breed type. It is large and broad, giving the impression of great power,
but it is not disproportionate to the size of the body. Viewed from the front, the head is shaped like a broad, blunt wedge.
When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle are parallel to one another and joined by a well defined, moderately deep
stop. Supraorbital arches over the eyes are well defined but not pronounced. The head is well chiseled, blending strength,
elegance, and character.
SKULL - The skull is large, flat or slightly rounded, deep, and broad between the ears. Viewed from the top, the skull
tapers just slightly toward the stop. There is a deep median furrow that diminishes in depth from the stop to the occiput.
Cheek muscles are prominent but free of wrinkles. When the dog is concentrating, wrinkles form on the forehead, which give
the APBT his unique expression.
MUZZLE - The muzzle is broad and deep with a very slight taper from the stop to the nose, and a slight falling away
under the eyes. The length of muzzle is shorter than the length of skull, with a ratio of approximately 2:3. The topline of
the muzzle is straight. The lower jaw is well developed, wide and deep. Lips are clean and tight.
Faults: Snipey muzzle; flews; weak lower jaw.
TEETH - The American Pit Bull Terrier has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite.
Fault: Level bite.
Serious Faults: Undershot, or overshot bite; wry mouth; missing teeth (this does not apply to teeth that have been
lost or removed by a veterinarian).
NOSE - The nose is large with wide, open nostrils. The nose may be any color.
EYES - Eyes are medium size, round to almond-shaped, and set well apart and low on the skull. All colors are equally
acceptable except blue, which is a serious fault. Haw should not be visible.
Serious Faults: Bulging eyes; both eyes not matched in color; blue eyes.
EARS - Ears are high set and may be natural or cropped without preference. If natural, semi-prick or rose are preferred.
Prick or flat, wide ears are not desired.
The neck is of moderate length and muscular. There is a slight arch at the crest. The neck widens gradually from where
it joins the skull to where it blends into well laid-back shoulders. The skin on the neck is tight and without dewlap.
Faults: Neck too short and thick; thin or weak neck; ewe neck; dewlap.
The shoulder blades are long, wide, muscular, and well laid back. The upper arm is roughly equal in length to the
shoulder blade and joins it at an apparent right angle.
The forelegs are strong and muscular. The elbows are set close to the body. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are
set moderately wide apart and perpendicular to the ground. The pasterns are short, powerful, straight, and flexible. When
viewed in profile, the pasterns are nearly erect.
Faults: Upright or loaded shoulders; elbows turned outward or tied-in; down at the pasterns; front legs bowed; wrists
knuckled over; toeing in or out.
The chest is deep, well filled in, and moderately wide with ample room for heart and lungs, but the chest should never
be wider than it is deep. The forechest does not extend much beyond the point of shoulder. The ribs extend well back and are
well sprung from the spine, then flattening to form a deep body extending to the elbows. The back is strong and firm. The
topline inclines very slightly downward from the withers to a broad, muscular, level back. The loin is short, muscular and
slightly arched to the top of the croup, but narrower than the rib cage and with a moderate tuck-up. The croup is slightly
The hindquarters are strong, muscular, and moderately broad. The rump is well filled in on each side of the tail and
deep from the pelvis to the crotch. The bone, angulation, and musculature of the hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters.
The thighs are well developed with thick, easily discerned muscles. Viewed from the side, the hock joint is well bent and
the rear pasterns are well let down and perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are straight
and parallel to one another.
Faults: Narrow hindquarters; hindquarters shallow from pelvis to crotch; lack of muscle; straight or over angulated
stifle joint; cow hocks; sickle hocks; bowed legs.
The feet are round, proportionate to the size of the dog, well arched, and tight. Pads are hard, tough, and well cushioned.
Dewclaws may be removed.
Fault: Splayed feet.
The tail is set on as a natural extension of the topline, and tapers to a point. When the dog is relaxed, the tail
is carried low and extends approximately to the hock. When the dog is moving, the tail is carried level with the backline.
When the dog is excited, the tail may be carried in a raised, upright position (challenge tail), but never curled over the
back (gay tail).
Fault: Long tail (tail tip passes beyond point of hock).
Serious faults: Gay tail (not to be confused with challenge tail); kinked tail.
Disqualification: Bobbed tail.
The coat is glossy and smooth, close, and moderately stiff to the touch.
Faults: Curly, wavy, or sparse coat.
Disqualification: Long coat.
Any color, color pattern, or combination of colors is acceptable, except for merle.
Height and Weight
The American Pit Bull Terrier must be both powerful and agile so actual weight and height are less important than
the correct proportion of weight to height. Desirable weight for a mature male in good condition is between 35 and 60 pounds.
Desirable weight for a mature female in good condition is between 30 and 50 pounds. Dogs over these weights are not to be
penalized unless they are disproportionately massive or rangy.
The American Pit Bull Terrier moves with a jaunty, confident attitude, conveying the impression that he expects any
minute to see something new and exciting. When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful, and well coordinated, showing
good reach in front and drive behind. When moving, the backline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness.
Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases,
feet tend to converge toward center line of balance.
Faults: Legs not moving on the same plane; legs over reaching; legs crossing over in front or rear; rear legs moving
too close or touching; rolling; pacing; paddling; sidewinding; hackney action; pounding.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Bobbed tail.
Note: Although some level of dog aggression is characteristic of this breed, handlers will be expected to comply with
UKC policy regarding dog temperament at UKC shows
Official Breed Standard
Kennel Union of South Africa
Must have a good temperament with controlled aggressiveness. Must be intelligent with a steadfast and balanced nature
and be faithful to his master until death. Must possess the characteristics of a good watchdog and be loving towards his owners
with a special liking for children. Must possess enormous self-confidence.
Must be large, solid, strong and well muscled. Be an impressive, well balanced dog with no obvious signs of any other
Head - large and strong. Short, broad and deep symmetrical and balanced flat between the ears the ideal nasal bone length
of males is 10cm and that of bitches 8cm and must be straight with no upturn the stop not too prominent nostrils large and
Eyes - well formed with well pigmented lids no bulge - brow bone not prominent
Ears - medium size and V-shaped and in relation to the rest of the head fall naturally against the head and positioned
Jaws - strong, straight and broad well shut. The ideal is a scissor bite lips must be pigmented and not too fleshy and
must cover the teeth
Neck - strong and muscled loose dewlap tautening between the legs form a well-balanced unity between head and body
Chest - must be strong, well muscled, broad and deep in relation to the dog and its body, with
ample chest capacity
Front Legs - straight, sturdy and positioned under the body with slightly angulated but firm fetlocks
Shoulders - strong, muscled and supple
Elbows - must not stand out or bend in so that the dog has a comfortable movement
Body - length must be in relation to the size of the dog
Back - strong with a relatively straight topline
Loin - fairly short and well muscled
HINDQUARTERS must be strong, muscled and well constructed
Legs - sturdy with slightly angulated but firm fetlocks
Hocks - correctly angulated and under the body when moving
Paws - well padded, noticeably larger in front must not turn out or in, pointing straight forward
Tail - preferably docked. (Long tails are allowed). forms a unity with the dog and set fairly high with no deformity
COAT - short and smooth
COLOUR - any colour is acceptable providing strong pigmentation is present
MOVEMENT powerful and purposeful in line front to rear
Height : Males - ideal height between 60 and 70cm
Females- between 55 and 65cm
Weight :Fully grown and prime condition :
Males - between 60 and 75kg
Females - between 50 and 65kg
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should
be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Official U.K.C. Breed Standard
The Kangal Dog is an ancient flock-guarding breed, thought to be related to the early mastiff-type dogs depicted in
Assyrian art. The breed is named for the Kangal District of Sivas Province in Central Turkey where it probably originated.
Although the breed has long been associated with the family of the Aga of Kangal, large landholders and chieftains, the majority
are bred by villagers who take great pride in the dogs' ability to guard their flocks of sheep and goats from such traditional
predators as the wolf, bear, and jackal. The relative isolation of the Sivas-Kangal region has kept the Kangal Dog free of
cross-breeding and has resulted in a natural breed of remarkable uniformity in appearance, disposition, and behavior. Despite
its regional origin, many Turks consider the Kangal Dog as their national dog. Turkish government and academic institutions
operate breeding kennels where Kangal Dogs are bred and pedigrees are carefully maintained. The Kangal Dog has even appeared
on a Turkish postage stamp.
The Kangal Dog was first reported in European and North American canine literature by David and Judith Nelson, Americans
who studied the dogs while resident in Turkey. The Nelsons imported their first Kangal Dog to the United States in 1985. This
dog, and subsequent imports, provided the foundation for the Kangal Dog in the United States.
The Kangal Dog was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1998.
The Kangal Dog is a large, powerful, heavy-boned dog, whose size and proportions have developed naturally as a result
of its continued use in Turkey as a guardian against predators. The head is large and moderately wide with drop ears. A properly
proportioned Kangal Dog is slightly longer (measured from prosternum to point of buttocks) than tall (measured from the withers
to the ground), and length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) should equal slightly more than one-half
of the dog's height. The tail, which is typically curled, completes the distinctive silhouette. The Kangal Dog has a double
coat that is moderately short and quite dense. The Kangal Dog has a black mask and black velvety ears that contrast with a
whole body color which may range from light dun to gray. Honorable scars or other evidences of injury resulting from working
in the field are not to be penalized.
The typical Kangal Dog is first and foremost a stock guardian dog and possesses a temperament typical of such dogs-alert,
territorial, and defensive of the domestic animals or the human family to which it has bonded. The Kangal Dog has the strength,
speed, and courage to intercept and confront threats to the flocks of sheep and goats that it guards both in Turkey and the
New World. Kangal Dogs prefer to intimidate predators but will take a physical stand and even attack if necessary. Kangal
Dogs have an instinctive wariness of strange dogs but are not typically belligerent toward people. They are somewhat reserved
with strangers but loyal and affectionate with family.
The head is large but in proportion to the size of the dog without appearing heavy or coarse. The female's head is
somewhat more refined than the male's head. Viewed from above, the broad skull tapers very slightly toward the place where
the muzzle joins it and then tapers slightly from the base of the muzzle toward the nose. When viewed from the side, the length
of the muzzle, measured from stop to the end of the nose, is slightly shorter than the length of the skull, measured from
occiput to stop, in an approximate ratio of 2:3.
Faults: Narrow head.
SKULL -- The skull is broad between the ears and slightly domed. The ratio of skull width in relation to total head
length is approximately 3:5. There is a slight central furrow which runs from the middle of the skull through the stop and
gradually broadens into the wide base of the muzzle. The cheeks are moderately well developed. The stop is well-defined but
Faults: Skull too flat; skull too narrow
MUZZLE -- The muzzle is deep and moderately blunt due, in part, to the development of the upper lips which are somewhat
padded, especially in mature males. When viewed from the side, the jaws are of equal length. The muzzle is blockier and stronger
in the male. The lips are fairly tight and always black.
Faults: Snipey muzzle; over-developed flews.
TEETH -- The Kangal Dog has a complete set of large, evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors or level bite.
Broken teeth resulting from field work are not to be penalized.
Serious faults: Over or undershot bite; more than two teeth missing; wry mouth.
NOSE -- The nose is large and solid black.
Disqualification: Liver or chocolate-colored nose
EYES -- The eyes are medium sized, somewhat round, set well apart and show no haw. Eye color ranges from deep brown
to amber. Eye rims are black.
Serious faults: Pale yellow eyes; lack of solid black pigment on the eye rims; loose eye rims.
EARS -- The ears are pendant, medium sized, triangular in shape and rounded at the tips. The ears are set even with
the outside corners of the skull. When alert, the ears may be carried slightly higher. The front edge of the ear is carried
close to the cheek and, when pulled forward, the ears should amply cover the dog's eyes. In puppies, the ears may appear disproportionately
large. In Turkey, the majority of Kangal Dogs have their ears cropped as puppies. Cropped ears on a dog imported from Turkey
should not be penalized, but cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog are a disqualification.
Faults: Any ear carriage other than pendant; ears set too high or too low; ears too large or too small.
Disqualification: Cropped ears on a domestic-bred dog.
The neck is powerful and muscular, moderate in length, slightly arched, and rather thick. Some dewlap is present.
Faults: Short, heavy neck; overly long neck; exaggerated dewlap.
The shoulders are well muscled and moderately angulated. The forelegs are long, well boned, and set well apart, with
strong, slightly sloping pasterns. The elbows move freely and close to the sides. The front quarters are slightly heavier
in proportion to the hindquarters.
Faults: Loose shoulders or elbows in mature dogs; bowed front legs; feet that turn in or out; chest too wide or too
The body is powerful and muscular. The line of the back inclines very slightly downward from the withers, levels,
and then rises with a slight arch over the short, muscular loin which blends into a moderately short and slightly sloping
croup. The ribs are well sprung. The moderately wide chest is deep with the brisket extending down to the elbow. Tuck-up is
moderate. The Kangal Dog is a working dog and should always be presented in well-muscled condition.
Faults: Narrow or poorly muscled chest; narrow rib cage; barrel chest; long back or long loin; steep croup; overweight
or lack of muscle.
The hindquarters are powerful and well-muscled although somewhat less substantial than the forequarters. The rear
legs are well-boned and moderately angulated at the stifle and hock joints. The hind legs are parallel when viewed from the
rear. The rear pasterns are moderate in length and slope slightly forward from the hock joint when the dog is standing in
a natural position.
Faults: Poorly muscled thighs; insufficient or over-angulation at stifle or hock; rear feet turning in or out.
The feet are large with the front feet somewhat larger than the rear feet. They are either rounded or oval in shape
with well-cushioned pads and toes that may be webbed. Nails, which may be black, white, or mixed in color, should be kept
blunt. Rear dewclaws may be absent, present, single, or double. Dewclaws may be removed.
Faults: Splayed feet.
The tail, which is set at the end of the croup is uncut, thick at the base, and tapering to the tip. The hair is slightly
fuller on the tail than on the body. When the dog is in repose, the rather long tail reaches at least to the hock. When the
dog is alert, the tail is carried in a curl over the back. The curl may be tight or loose but when the tail is curled tightly,
the tip of the tail may fall off to one side of the back.
Faults: Extensive tail feathering or plumed tail; tail too short or too long; tail carried off-center (to the side
of one hip) when curled; kinked tail.
The Kangal Dog has a short double coat, neither wavy nor fluffy. In cold weather, the coat is very dense, nearly uniform
in length. In warm weather, much of the undercoat is shed, leaving a short, flatter outer coat. The outer coat is harsh and
the undercoat is very soft, dense, and sometimes gray in color. The hair on the neck, shoulders and tail is only slightly
longer than the hair on the body. The hair on the tail is never plumed or feathered. Most Kangal Dogs have a strip of flatter
hair along the topline. The hair on the face, head, and ears is quite short.
Faults: Feathering anywhere on the body or on the legs or tail; lack of undercoat; medium, long or shaggy coat.
Color is an important characteristic of the Kangal Dog. In Turkey, non-standard colors or patterns are indicators
that the dog is not a purebred Kangal Dog. The true Kangal Dog color is always solid and ranges from a light dun or pale,
dull gold to a steel gray, depending on the amount of black or gray in the outer guard hairs and in the soft, cashmere-like
undercoat. This basic color is set off by a black mask which may completely cover the muzzle and even extend over the top
of the head. Ears are always black. White is only permitted on the feet, chest and chin. The white on the feet may extend
half way up the forearm. The white on the chest may range from a small spot to a blaze which may extend in a narrow stripe
under the chest. Such blazes are frequently outlined with dark hair. Only a small white spot is allowed on the chin. The tip
of the tail is usually black and a black spot in the middle of the tail is often present.
Disqualifications: Solid black, white, or chocolate colored dogs; dogs with piebald, brindle or other parti-colored
patterns; white markings on the face other than the small white spot on the chin; albinism.
Faults: Poorly defined black mask.
Height and Weight
Desirable height at maturity (minimum two years), measured at the withers, ranges from 30 to 32 inches for males and
28 to 30 inches for females. A male Kangal Dog in good condition should weigh between 110 and 145 pounds. A female should
weigh between 90 and 120 pounds. Height and weight in both sexes may exceed the foregoing and should not be penalized as long
as overall balance is maintained.
Fault: Obese, soft condition.
The Kangal Dog's movement reflects the breed's combination of strength and agility. Its natural gait is relaxed and
efficient with strides of moderate length. The back remains level, and the front and rear legs on each side move in a parallel
fashion. As speed increases, however, the width between the legs decreases and the tendency to single track increases. Pacing
at a slow gait is acceptable
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness, marked shyness or cowardliness. Piebald, brindle, or parti-colored
coat color patterns. White, black, chocolate, or liver whole body color. Liver or chocolate color nose. Albinism. Cropped
ears on a domestic-bred dog.
LOUISIANA CATAHOULA LEOPARD DOG
Official U.K.C. Breed Standard
Revised April 15, 2003
The origins of the Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog are unknown but it is believed to be descended from crosses between
Native American dogs, Red Wolves (some of whom lived as pariahs on the outskirts of Indian villages), and the dogs brought
to the New World by Spanish conquistadors, probably mastiff-types and sighthounds. Some experts believe Beaucerons were added
to the mix when the area was settled by the French. White settlers in Louisiana found the Native Americans using these unusual-looking
dogs to hunt a variety of wild game, including deer, bobcat, wild hog, and bear. The new arrivals soon came to appreciate
this versatile breed that was equally capable of scenting, trailing and treeing game, or baying and herding feral hogs and
There are many stories regarding the origin of the breed's exotic name: Catahoula. The most likely is that it is a
corruption of the Indian word that meant "Choctaw," the name of a local tribe.
The only thing certain is that the Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog is an all-American multi-purpose working dog. On
July 9, 1979, the governor of Louisiana signed a bill making this breed the official State Dog of Louisiana.
The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog was recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1995.
The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog is a medium to medium-large, short-coated dog with a broad head, small-to-medium
drop ears, and an undocked tail set on as a natural extension of the topline. The Catahoula is well muscled and powerful but
not bulky, giving the impression of agility and endurance. The Catahoula is a moderate breed and should not resemble either
a sighthound or a bulldog in appearance. The body is just slightly longer than tall and the distance from the elbow to the
ground should equal 50-60% of the dog's height from the withers to the ground. The Catahoula should be evaluated as a multi-purpose
working dog, and exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with the dog's ability
Because of the breed's name, many people assume that all Catahoulas have the so-called "leopard" markings
and blue eyes. In fact, the breed is noted for its many and unusual coat colors and patterns, as well as varied eye color.
Catahoula temperament ranges from serious and business-like when working to clownish at home, with varying levels
of energy. It is not uncommon for Catahoulas to be aloof with strangers, which often results in a lack of animation when showing
and may cause some to draw away from judges when being examined. Catahoulas should never be excessively aggressive or shy.
They can be independent, protective and territorial so they require firm guidance and a clear understanding of their place
in the family unit. Catahoulas are affectionate, gentle and loyal family companions.
The head is powerfully built without appearing exaggerated. Viewed from the side, the length of skull and muzzle are
approximately equal in length, and joined by a well-defined stop of moderate length. The planes of the topskull and the bridge
of the muzzle are roughly parallel to one another. There may be a slight median furrow between the eyes and running back to
the occipital bone. Gender differences should be apparent in the characteristics of the head.
SKULL - The skull is broad and flat. The cheeks are well developed.
Fault: Excessively broad skull; narrow skull.
MUZZLE - The muzzle is strong and deep. Viewed from above, the muzzle is moderately wide and tapering toward the nose.
Lips may be tight or slightly pendulous with pigment of any color or combination of colors.
Faults: Snipey muzzle.
TEETH - The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth. A scissors bite is preferred
but a level bite is acceptable. Full dentition is greatly desired but dogs are not to be penalized for worn or broken teeth.
Serious Faults: Overshot or undershot bite.
NOSE - Nose pigment may be any color or combination of colors.
EYES - Eyes are set moderately well apart, medium in size, somewhat rounded in appearance, and are set well into the
skull. Eyes may be any color or combination of colors without preference. Eye rims are tight and may be any color or combination
Serious faults: Malformed pupils; pupils not centered; sagging eyelids making haw visible; functional abnormality
of eyelids or eyelashes.
EARS - Ears are drop, short to medium in length, moderate in size, and proportionally wide at the base, gradually
tapering to the slightly rounded tip. They should fold over and be generally triangular in shape. The top of the ear fold
is level or just slightly below the top line of the skull. When the dog is at attention, the inner edge of the ear lies close
to the cheek. Laid-back ears are acceptable but not preferred.
Faults: Any ear type other than described above.
Disqualification: Cropped ears.
The neck is muscular and of good length, without being overdone. The circumference of the neck widens from the nape
to where the neck blends smoothly into the shoulders.
Faults: Neck too short and thick or too thin and weak; excess skin forming dewlap.
The shoulders are strong and smoothly muscled. The shoulder blades are long, wide, flat and well laid back. The upper
arm is roughly equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an angle sufficient to ensure that the foot falls under
the withers. The elbows are close to the body and do not turn out. The forelegs are straight, and of medium bone, indicating
strength without excessive thickness. Pasterns are strong, short, and slightly sloping. The length of the forelegs should
roughly equal 50-60% of the dog's height at the withers. A dog with legs shorter than the ideal is to be more heavily penalized
than a dog with longer legs.
Faults: Forequarters significantly heavier than hindquarters; bone too heavy or too fine; straight shoulders; out
at elbows; weak pasterns.
A properly proportioned Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog is slightly longer than tall. The topline inclines very slightly
downward from well-developed withers to a level back. The back is broad and well muscled with a short, strong, slightly arched
loin. A slightly longer loin is acceptable in females. The ribs extend well back and are well sprung out from the spine. The
chest is deep, reaching at least to the elbows, and moderately broad. When viewed from the side, the forechest extends in
a shallow oval shape in front of the forelegs. Tuck-up is apparent but not exaggerated. Croup is medium to long and slightly
sloping. A slightly elevated rear resulting from slightly straighter rear angulation should not be penalized too severely.
Faults: Chest too broad, too narrow or too shallow; soft topline; exaggerated or absent tuck-up; loin too long.
Hindquarters are strong and smoothly muscled. Width and angulation of hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters.
The stifles are well bent, and the hocks are well let down. When the dog is standing, the short, strong rear pasterns are
perpendicular to the ground and, viewed from the rear, parallel to one another.
Faults: Thin, weak hindquarters; cow-hocked; open-hocked.
Good feet are essential for a working dog. Feet are well knit and oval in shape. Toes are long, webbed and well arched.
Pads are thick and hard. Nails are strong. Dewclaws may be removed.
Fault: Cat foot.
The tail is a natural extension of the topline. It is thicker at the base and tapers to the tip. A tail of the correct
length extends to the hock. When the dog is relaxed, the tail hangs down naturally. When the dog is moving or alert, the tail
may be carried upright with the tip curving forward. Catahoulas should be allowed to carry their tails naturally when being
shown. Exhibitors should not hold the tails upright.
Faults: Ring tail; tail that forms a hook at the end; natural bobtail; docked tail.
The Catahoula has a single coat, short to medium in length that lies flat and close to the body. Texture ranges from
smooth to coarse, without preference.
Disqualification: Long coat; fuzzy coat that obscures the outline of the dog.
Catahoulas come in an endless variety of coat colors and patterns. All color combinations and patterns can have color
points or trim, which may be located on the chest, cheeks, above the eyes, on the legs, underbody or under the tail. The Leopard
pattern has a base color with contrasting spots of one or more other colors. Solids have a single coat color. Brindles may
have a light or dark base coat color with contrasting stripes. The Patchwork pattern may or may not have one predominant solid
color with one or more different size patches of different colors and shades placed randomly on the body. Colors must be rich
and deep. No coat color or pattern is preferred.
Fault: Washed out colors.
Serious fault: 70 percent or more white.
Disqualification: 90 percent or more white coat color; solid white head; albinism.
Height and Weight
Ideal height at maturity for males is 24 inches and for females, 22 inches, with a variation of two inches either
way acceptable. Weight may range from 50 to 95 pounds, in proportion to the dog's height. The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard
Dog must be both powerful and agile so actual weight and height are less important than the correct proportion of weight to
height. Catahoulas should always be presented in hard, working condition. Any deviation from the ideal must be judged by the
extent of the deviation, and the effect it has on the dog's ability to work.
When trotting, the gait is smooth, fluid and effortless, showing good but not exaggerated reach in front and powerful
drive behind. The topline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position, legs
turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward
center line of balance. Poor movement should be penalized to the degree to which it reduces the Catahoula's ability to perform
the tasks it was bred to do.
Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Cropped ears.
Long coat. Fuzzy coat that obscures the outline of the dog. 90 percent or more white coat color. Solid white head. Albinism.
Standard of the Nebolish Club of America
Description- The Nebolish is a dog of great presence, the most agile of the Mastiff breeds. His intelligence, loyal
affection and fearless courage make him a highly desired companion. An excellent family member, often used as a working dog
or livestock protector. Good natured, patient and playful with children. Should be of strong muscular structure, large
boned, wide chest. Head- broad with natural ears, a short wide snout, scissor bite, excessive flews are not desired. No slobber
problem. Coat- short medium length. Colors- Fawn, Brindle, in all shades including Rare Silver. Markings- Black mask,
White markings are permitted, but not desired. Tail maybe docked.
Temperament- Very even tempered, Alert, Dignified, Not excessive barkers, Almost human expression, Loyal, Easy to train,
Height-Weight- 27" to 36" inches Weight- 95 to 190lbs Male or Female should reach over 100lbs and have very
solid muscular structure. The focus being a dog that is sound and works, agile even at a mature age.
Health Problems- No breed is free from health ailments, there have been none that the Nebolish is predisposed to. The
Nebolish was developed to be a large agile dog, free of genetic defects. Breeding of Mastiffs is not recommended for the
novice, there are many breeding problems with Mastiffs it is recommended to spay to ensure a longer life span.
Living Conditions- Not for the apartment dweller, can get by on a daily walk and a large yard, but enjoy acreage to explore.
Not prone to roam but must be contained because of the intimidation of his size! Once boundaries are established Nebolish
will stay in a 4 ft or stock fence with no problem. Nebolish were developed in Northwest colder climate, spending winter
infront of the fireplace. They thrive in warm climate, love the sun and water.
Exercise- Need room to run, love to swim and hike. The adult Nebolish is at home living indoors, but they need that daily
walk in the woods! These dogs love to check the pastures with there owners, they will make certain all fences are secure
and free of intruders!
Life Expectancy- 10 to 14years
Grooming- Very minimal, a brisk brush, occasional bath the Nebolish love water!
Origin- With over 80 Mastiff types, the Nebolish is one of the rarest. They were developed in late 1960's in the NorthAmerica
The breed developed to increase the agility, health and life expectancy of the Mastiff by crossing Old English, Bull,
Dogue de Bordeaux, Mastiffs, and it is supected that the Great Dane, Boxer, Saint Bernard maybe in the bloodline. There
has never been an exact breakdown of the breeding program, to keep the line pure the exact breedings, that evolved to the
Nebolish we know today has never been disclosed. The Nebolish ancestry can be traced back to Aristotele and Alexander the
Great, who recieved these large dogs for soldiers protection from Lions. The Noble Loyal Healthy Mastiff is not a new breed,
but a breed which was lost in history and now rediscovered in the Nebolish Mastiff.
Group- Mastiff - Working
Olde English Bulldogge
Breed Standard - A.R.B.A.
GENERAL: Re-Creation of original Bulldogge
APPEARANCE: Medium sized dog. Powerfully built and showing great strength. Weight for males is 60 lbs. and up. Females
50 lbs. and up. Height at shoulders for males 17" and up. Females 16" and up. He should be alert, with a symmetrical,
well proportioned body. The dog should be cobby, but have the appearance of an athlete. .
TEMPERAMENT: Friendly, but a fearless adversary to anyone who threatens his master or property. Unfriendliness to strangers
isn't a defect, although it's unusual.
HEAD: Large in proportion to body and square. Deeply sunken between eyes, extending up forehead. Moderately wrinkled.
Jaw muscles large. Lower jaw turned up and protruding. Bite squared, but undershot. Large tusks. Eyes low and wide set. Forehead
flat. Muzzle short and broad. Flews semi-pendulous. Ears may be either rose or button and should be set high and wide. Dewlap
will have two folds.
BODY: Neck should be short and nearly as wide as the head. Shoulders very broad and muscular. Front legs may be slightly
bowed or straight. Ribs well rounded and chest wide and deep. Back short, slightly roached and strong. Belly well tucked up.
Thighs very muscular. Rear legs neither pigeon-toed or cow-hocked. Tails must be straight.
COAT: Short, close and medium fine.
COLOR: Brindle of red, grey, or black. Brindle spots on white. Solid white. Fawn, red or black, solid or with white. Pink
noses and pink skin around eyes are undesirable, but not a disqualification
Victorian Bulldog Standard
GENERAL APPEARANCE A medium size, smooth-coated dog with a solid but active countenance. Large headed and thick boned,
only to the point that it does not impede vigor. Broad muzzled and short faced, but not so excessive as to interfere with
breathing. Hindquarters somewhat higher and not as heavy as foreparts, but not so as to destroy the symmetry of a muscular
TEMPERAMENT Although fierce and formidable in appearence, the dog must possess a steady, loyal and dependable nature,
being bold without aggression, with a proud air of 'nothing to prove'.
HEAD The head should be large but not exaggerated out of proportion to the body. Cheeks rounded and extended sideways
beyond the eyes. Face measured from front of cheek-bone to tip of nose, long enough for unhindered breathing. Muzzle broad
and turning up. Undershot but not to excess. Nostrils large and wide, black preferred but dudley acceptable. Flews broad and
hanging over lower jaw at sides. Teeth canines large and wide apart, with ideally six smaller teeth between a square bite
(not wry). Eyes from the front, set low and wide apart. Neither bulging or sunken and on no account should the haw be visable.
Ears no preference to rose or button. On no account erect or cropped.
NECK Thick, strong and arched, with loose skin forming dewlap on each side.
BODY Shoulders broad and deep. Rounded ribs with a wide chest narrowing towards the loins without exaggeration. The
belly should be well tucked up and on no account rotund. A roach back is desired as long as it is not carried to excess or
makes the dog look deformed. Forelegs muscular, straight and wide apart, not bandy or curved. Elbows away from ribs. Pasterns
straight and strong. Hindlegs strong and muscular. Hocks slightly bent. Feet round and compact.
TAIL Either straight, turning down, or screwed. Not carried above back or docked. COAT Short.
COLOUR In order of preference: Red brindle. All other brindles. Solid white or pied. Solid red. Fawn or fallow. On no
account black or black and tan. SIZE Males: 17-19 inches, 70-75 pounds Females: 16-19 inches, 55-65 pounds